List of Value Addition Processes in the Textile Industry

What is Value Addition Processes?
Value addition on fabrics is the process of enhancing the quality, aesthetics, functionality, and overall value of textile materials. It involves applying various techniques, treatments, or processes to fabrics to improve their appearance, performance, or utility. The fabric coming from the loom does not have properties such as absorbency, softness and so forth, and the appearance of the fabric is dirty or pale yellow. They are not undesirable and cannot be used directly for making apparels or clothing. Therefore, it is necessary to follow some processing of the material to make it wearable. These processes add value to the fabrics and; hence, are referred as value addition processes.

Value Addition Processes on Fabrics
Fig: Value Addition Processes on Fabrics

List of Value Addition Processes on Fabrics:
There are innumerable value addition processes in textile industry. The purposes are different for each value addition process. They are all done as per the requirement of the customers. Although the value addition processes done on fabrics have different purposes and the processes, they can be broadly grouped as follows:

1. Pretreatments:

  • Singeing
  • Desizing

2. Scouring/bleaching/mercerizing:

  • Kier boiling
  • Bleaching
  • Mercerizing
  • Scouring and milling of wool fabrics
  • Rotary drum washing

3. Dyeing:

  • Padding process
  • Jigger dyeing
  • Jet dyeing

4. Drying:

  • Drying ranges—cylinder drying
  • Hot-air drying.
  • Air-fl ow processing of fabrics
  • Hot-air stenters
  • Radio frequency dryers
  • Relax dryers

5. Shrink-proof finishing:

  • Suprema KD Biella
  • Formula-1, KD Biella
  • Sanforizing
  • Zero–zero finish
  • Comfit
  • Steam relaxing
  • Jet air
  • Relax shrinking

6. Special effects:

  • Weight reduction processes for polyester
  • Peaching or sueding of fabrics
  • Raising operation on fabric
  • Fabric shearing
  • Decatizing of wool
  • Calendaring

7. Printing styles:

  • Direct printing
  • High-density printing of polyester
  • Overprinting
  • Mordant printing
  • Resist dyeing
  • Discharge printing
  • Resist printing
  • Pigment printing
  • Emboss printing—pub printing
  • Glitter printing
  • Inkjet printing

8. Printing methods:

  • Block printing
  • Burnout printing
  • Blotch printing
  • Digital printing
  • Duplex printing
  • Engraved roller printing
  • Electrostatic printing
  • Flock printing
  • Inkjet printing
  • Jet spray printing
  • Photo printing
  • Photographic printing
  • Screen printing—fl at screen
  • Rotary screen printing
  • Stencil printing
  • Spray printing
  • Transfer printing
  • Warp printing
  • Special methods—tie and dye, Batik printing, space dyeing

9. Garment washing:

  1. Wet process/chemical process
    • Normal wash/garment wash/rinse wash
    • Pigment wash
    • Caustic wash
    • Enzyme wash
    • Stonewash with or without bleach
    • Stone enzyme wash
    • Tinting (tie) and overdyeing (dip dyeing)
    • Super-white wash
    • Bleach wash
    • Acid wash
    • Silicon wash
    • Soft wash
    • Whitening
    • Metal wash
  2. Dry process/mechanical process
    • Sandblasting
    • Hand scraping
    • Overall wrinkles
    • Permanent wrinkle
    • Broken and tagging
    • Grinding and destroy
    • PP spray, PP sponging and so forth.

Generally, it is impossible to list all the value addition processes practiced worldwide. Here is give some of the processes, especially those used for apparel purposes. There are a number of value addition processes for garments normally referred as garment washing. The value addition processes for fabrics to be used for apparels are arranged as per the requirement of the customers. Value addition on fabrics opens up a world of possibilities for the textile industry, enabling manufacturers and designers to create extraordinary textiles with enhanced aesthetics, functionality, and performance. So we can say that, the goal of value addition is to differentiate the product or service from competitors, increase its perceived worth, and meet or exceed customer expectations, thereby creating added value for the consumer.

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