**What is Warping Process?**

Warping is the process of converting the yarn into a sheet of yarns (of desired length and desired number of ends in the sheet) for using in the **weaving process** as a warp sheet. It is a preparatory process for the sizing and weaving activity. The activities of the warping process are listed below:

**Creeling:**Loading the cones into the creel set of the process and unravelling of yarns form the creel to the warping beam.**Leasing system:**Leasing is a method of segregating warp yarns from neighbouring ones and maintaining its location in the warp sheet. This assists the operator (the warper or the weaver) in easily locating the broken yarn and prevents crossed yarns mending in the sheet.**Expandable reed:**The warp sheet from the creel converges into the expandable reed, through the dents of which the warp threads pass.**Winding sections:**Winds the separated individual yarns as per selected numbers simultaneously in the form of sheet.

**Factors Influencing the Production / Cost of the Warping**

**Creel type and capacity:**The production or cost of the warping process mainly depends upon the capacity of the creel. The creel capacity decides the maximum number of warp yarns that can be wound on the warping machine.**Speed of warping machine:**The average production speed of the machine.**End breakage rate:**Increased end breaks reduce the number of meters produced by the machine. Hence, the number of stoppages is one of the main factors influencing the cost and production.**Doffs of warper beams per creel set:**Once the required number of meters are wound on the warpers beam, it needs to be removed and new flange needs to be fixed. The time taken for this process is significant and hence the number of doffing also decides production capacity of the machine.**Number of cones available:**Customers may provide or the manufacturers may source the required number of cones to produce the order quantity. Hence based on the sourced or available cones, the production needs to be performed.**Total number of warpers beam and warp length required:**Based on the length and number of beams required, the doffing requirements changes and so the production costs.**Labor cost:**Direct and indirect labors involved in the production process.

**How to Calculate the Cost of Warping Process**

**Example 1:
**A warping industry received order from its customer to produce the warpers beam for sizing process. In this regard, the following information was provided by the customer.

**(i) Information provided by the customer:**

- The number of ends required to produce in the warp beam = 5280
- Yarn count – 30s and individual cone weight – 1.8 Kg
- Factory creel capacity – 600 cones

**(ii) Information from the manufacturer:**

- Yarn cost – Tk.250/kg
- Number of labors used in the manufacturing facility – 2 with a wage of Tk.380/shift
- Average production capacity – 100000 meters per shift
- Supervisor salary – Tk.30,000/month
- Electricity bill – Tk.1.5/kg
- Company works 1 shift per day and 26 days in a month

Calculate the cost of warping process per kg and the total yarn cost.

**Solution:**

Number of ends required = 5280

The creel capacity = 600

To have proper or balanced operations, the number of warper beams produced by warping department is maintained as even number.

Hence, for production, The number of ends per beam can be calculated as,

….Total number of ends

= —————————————-

……10 (Even number)

…5280

= —————-

…..10

= 528 ends/beam

……………………………………Count × 0.914 × 840 × cone weight in Kg

Length of yarn in a cone = ——————————————————————

………………………………………………………….0.453

This can be simplified as = Count × 1695 × cone weight in kg

= 30 × 1695 × 1.8Length of yarn in a cone

= 91,530 meters

….91,530

= —————–

…….10

= 9153 meters/beam (It is called as Tape length)

………………………………………………………….Order quantity

Hence, the number of shifts required = —————————–

………………………………………………………Production capacity

……91,530

= —————-

….1,00,000

= 0.9153 shifts

**Labor cost:**

Warping labor cost = No. of labors × wages/shift × No. of shifts

= 2 × 380 × 0.9153

= Tk.695.6 Supervisor salary

= Tk.30,000/month

Cost per day = 30000/26

= Tk.1,153.8/ day

Total expense for the order = Tk.1,153.8 × 0.9153

= Tk. 1056

Total labor cost = Tk. 1,751.6

= 14.6 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

**Other expenses:**

Electricity cost = Tk. 1.5/kg

Total yarn produced = Number of cones × weight of the cone

= 600 × 1.8

= 1080 kg

Electricity cost = 1080 × Tk. 1.5

= Tk.1,620

= 13.5 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

Total cost = Labor cost + Other expenses

= Tk.695.6 + Tk.1,056 + Tk.1,620

= Tk.3,371.6

= 28.1 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

…………………………Total expense of the order

Warping cost/kg = —————————————————-

………………………….Total weight of the order

….3,371.6

= —————

…..1080

= Tk. 3.12/kg

= 0.026 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

Warping cost/kg in USD = 0.026 USD

Total yarn used = 1,080 kg

Cost of the yarn/kg = Tk. 250

Total yarn cost = 1080 × 250

= Tk. 2,70,000

= 2,250 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

**Example 2:
**A warping manufacturer received an order to produce warpers beam with 6,020 ends. The other details obtained from the customer are provided as follows,

- Requested ends – 6,020
- Cones provided – 602
- Yarn count – 40s and the cone weight is noted as 2 kg.

The production details are:

- Average production capacity of the factory – 1 lakh meter/shift
- 2 warpers with a wage of Tk.380/1 lakh meters per shift
- The factory also works with 1 helper with a wage of Tk.300 per 1 lakh meters
- The supervisor salary – Tk.15,000 per month of 30 days
- Manager – Tk.25,000/month per 30 days
- Electricity bill – Tk.1.25/kg
- Other overhead expenses – Tk.50,000/30days

Calculate the cost of warping process per kg.

**Solution:**

No of ends required for warping = 6,020

Number of cones provided = 602

Yarn count = 40s

Hence, No of beams can be produced = 6,020/602 = 10 warper beams

…………………………………….Count × 0.914 × 840 × cone weight in Kg

Length of yarn in a cone = —————————————————————-

…………………………………………………………..0.453

This can be simplified as = Count × 1695 × cone weight in kg

= 40 × 1695 × 2

Length of yarn in a cone

= 1,35,600 meters

……………………………………..1,35,600

The length of yarn/beam = —————————-

…………………………………………10

= 13560 meters/beam (It is called as Tape length)

……………………………………………………. …….Order quantity

Hence, the number of shifts required = —————————————

…………………………………………. ……………Production capacity

….1,35,600

= ———————–

….100000

= 1.356 shifts

**Labor cost:**

Warping labor cost = No. of labors × wages/shift × No. of shifts

= 2 × 380 × 1.356

= Tk.1,030.56

Supervisor salary = Tk.15,000/month

……………………15,000

Cost per day = ————–

………………………30

= Tk.500/ day

Total expense for the order = Tk.500 × 1.356

= Tk.678

Manager salary = Tk.25,000/month

……………………25000

Cost per day = ————-

………………………30

= Tk.833.33/ day

Total expense for the order = Tk.833.33 × 1.356

= Tk.1,130

Total labor cost = Tk.1,030.56 + Tk.678 + Tk.1,130

= Tk.2,838.56

= 23.65 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

**Other expenses:**

Electricity cost = Tk.1.25/kg

Total yarn produced = Number of cones × weight of the cone

= 602 × 2 = 1,204 kg

Electricity cost = 1,204 × Tk.1.25

= Tk.1,505

= 12.54 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

……………………………..50,000

Overhead expenses = ——————

………………………………..30

= Tk.1,666.66/ day

Actual cost per day = Tk.1,666.66 × 1.356

= Tk.2260

= 18.83 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

Total cost = Labor cost + Other expenses + Overhead expenses

= Tk.2,838.56 + Tk.1,505 + Tk. 2,260

= Tk. 6,603.56

= 55.03 USD [1 USD = 120 Taka]

…………………….. …..Total expense of the order

Warping cost/kg = ——————————————-

…………………………..Total weight of the order

….6,603.56

= ———————-

……1204

= Tk.5.48/kg

= 0.046 [1 USD = 120 Taka]

Warping cost/kg in USD = 0.046 USD