Functions of Production Planning and Control in Garment Industry

Production Planning and Control (PPC) is a set of tools, systems, and instructions used to coordinate production operations in garment industry. Before going to know about the functions of production planning and control, we should clarified production planning and production control.

What is production planning in the garment industry?
Production planning is the process of determining the production schedule, resource allocation and other aspects necessary for manufacturing or delivering goods and services. The main aim of production planning is to provide a system along with a set of procedures for effective conversion of raw materials, labor and other inputs into final product (garment). The three key elements determining production planning in industry are

  • Volume of production
  • Nature of production process
  • Nature of operation

What is production control in the garment industry?
Production control is the process of planning production in advance of operations, establishing the exact route of each individual item part or assembly, setting, starting, and finishing for each important item, assembly or the finishing production, and releasing the necessary orders as well as initiating the necessary follow-up to have smooth functioning of the enterprise.

Production control involves planning of production of the garments and the resources in terms of equipment and the labor available for translating the requirement of the garment production into reality. Due to the continuous monitoring of production flow and the utilization of resources by the production control department, any deviation from the predetermined plan can be managed; hence, the productivity may run according to the original schedule. It manages all the garment production operations by means of gathering the significant information regarding the various types of inputs and outputs, and by making required changes in them. It guides and inspects the progress of the process and closes the records on the completion of the work or order.

Functions of Production Planning and Control in Garment Industry:
The functions of Production planning and control (PPC) could be discussed in two individual stages as shown in below Figure.

Functions of Production planning and control (PPC)
Fig: Functions of Production planning and control (PPC)

Functions of Production Planning:
The production planning functions include the following:

1. Estimating:
It involves determining the quantity of garments to be produced and associated cost involved for the same based on the sales forecast. Determinations of raw materials and labour required to meet the planned targets and machine capacity are the vital activities prior to budgeting for resources.

2. Routing:
It is the method of determining the chain of operations to be carried out in the production line to complete the assembling of garments. This information is given by a product engineering function and is beneficial to make machine loading charts. A route sheet is a document giving the guidelines and information for conversion of raw materials into finished products. Route sheets contain the following information:

  • The necessary operations and their sequence.
  • Machine has to be used for every operation.
  • Projected set up and operation time per garment piece.
  • Description of raw materials to be utilized for garment production.
  • Inspection procedure and tools required for inspection.
  • Garment packing and handling guidelines during the movement of parts and subassemblies through the operation stages.

3. Scheduling:
It involves standardizing the priorities for each work and determining the starting and finishing time for each process or operation. It gives a time table for production, representing the total time period essential for the production of a specific garment style. The objectives of scheduling are as follows:

  • To avoid unbalanced utilization of time amid various departments as well as work centers.
  • To utilize labor in an efficient manner such that the target is achieved well within the established lead time to dispatch the order in time and complete production at a minimum total cost.

4. Loading:
Loading is the process of transforming the scheduled processes into practical work. Two main concepts of loading are facility loading and machine loading.

  • Facility loading: It is the loading of the work center and deciding which kind of jobs to be allotted to which machine.
  • Machine loading: It is the process of allocating specific jobs to machines or workers based on primacies and capacity utilization. A machine loading chart has to be made to demonstrate the planned utilization of machines and workers by allocating the jobs to machineries as per priority determined at the time of scheduling.

Functions of Production Control in Garment Industry:
Production control functions include the following:

1. Dispatching:
It is defined as making the production-related activities in a dynamic manner by issuing the orders and guidelines in agreement with the previously planned time frames. It also gives a means for comparing actual progress of the work with respect to the planned progress. The functions of dispatching are given below:

  1. Ensuring the smooth flow of raw material and other accessories from stores to first garment production operation and then from one operation to the next operation until all production processes are carried out. In the garment unit, it comprises the flow of fabric to inspection and then to the spreading room, cutting section, sewing room, finishing, packing and dispatching.
  2. Gathering tools like cutting tools, sewing tools, etc., from tool stores and delivering them to the concerned department or operator.
  3. Delivering the specification sheets, drawings and route cards to the concerned departments.
  4. Giving the job orders and approving the processes in agreement with production schedule and time frame as indicated in schedules or machine loading charts.
  5. Getting the schedule of inspection by the buyers or internal inspectors in an organization and delivering it to the inspection section of the line.

2. Expediting/Follow-up:
It confirms that the process is done as per the production plan and the delivery schedules are met. Progressing comprises activities like status reporting, attending to bottleneck processes in the production line and eliminating them, controlling of deviations from the planned performance levels, monitoring and follow-up of progress of work in all stages of production, coordinating with stores, tool room, purchase and maintenance departments and revising the production plans and replanning it if necessary. The necessity for follow-up could arise owing to the following reasons:

  1. Delay in supply of materials.
  2. Excessive absenteeism.
  3. Changes in design specifications.
  4. Changes in delivery schedules initiated by the customers.
  5. Breakdown of machines, tools, jigs and fixtures.
  6. Errors in design drawings of patterns and process plans.

Production planning and control is a vital part of the apparel industry. Accuracy in PPC equates to timely shipment of orders, better utilization of operators and guarantees that proper supplies and machineries are available for each style and order. Functions of Production planning and control collectively contribute to the effective and efficient management of the production process, ensuring that resources are utilized optimally, and products are delivered on time and with the expected quality.


  1. Apparel Manufacturing Technology by T. Karthik, P. Ganesan, and D. Gopalakrishnan
  2. Garment Manufacturing Technology Edited by Rajkishore Nayak and Rajiv Padhye
  3. Practice of Garments Merchandising and Management by Engr. Md. Faruk Hosen


Q1: What is the importance of production planning?
Ans: Production planning in garment industry is very important for optimizing resources, meeting demand efficiently, and ensuring timely product delivery. It minimizes costs, reduces idle time, and enhances overall operational efficiency.

Q2: What are the benefits of PPC in the garment industry?
Ans: PPC ensures efficient utilization of resource, timely production, reducing lead times and optimal inventory management.

Q3: What is the importance of production planning and control?
Ans: Production planning and control are essential in garment industry for optimizing resources, meeting customer demand, minimizing costs, ensuring timely delivery, maintaining quality, and enhancing overall operational efficiency in garment manufacturing processes.

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