Woven Fabric Manufacturing: From Fiber to Fabric

Woven Fabric Manufacturing:
Textile fabric may be defined as the flexible assembly of fibers or yarns, either natural or man-made. It may be produced by a number of techniques, the most common of which are weaving, knitting, bonding, felting or tufting. In this article I will describe woven fabric manufacturing process.

Woven fabric manufacturing is a process of interlacing two sets of yarn or thread, the warp and weft, to create a fabric. The warp threads run vertically on a loom and the weft threads are woven horizontally through the warp to create the fabric. The pattern of interlacing determines the type of weave, such as plain, twill, or satin, which affects the fabric’s appearance, texture, and durability.

Woven fabric manufacturing

Woven fabrics are the most common type of fabric used in the fashion and textile industry. Fabric manufacturing using weaving is an ancient art, developed over thousands of years. However, still the people find it difficult to understand the variations and their requirements in fabric manufacturing. From clothing to home furnishings, woven fabrics are an essential part of our everyday lives. But how exactly are they made?

Woven fabric manufacturing is a complex process that involves many steps, from yarn preparation to weaving and finishing. The process can be done by hand or with the use of specialized machinery, such as air-jet or rapier looms. The final product can be used in a wide range of applications, including clothing, home furnishings, industrial textiles, and technical textiles. If you see the below image then your concept will be clear about woven fabric manufacturing.

fabric manufacturing process flowchart
Fig: Fabric manufacturing process flowchart

Here’s a step-by-step guide to the woven fabric manufacturing process:

Step 1: Spinning the Yarn
The first step in the woven fabric procedure is to spin the yarn. This is done by taking the raw fibers, such as cotton, wool, or silk, and twisting them together to form a continuous strand. This strand is then wound onto a spindle, creating a yarn.

Step 2: Yarn Preparation
The first step is to prepare the yarn to be used as the warp and weft. This involves winding the yarn onto cones or beams and sizing it to improve its strength and reduce breakage during weaving.

Step 3: Warping
The next step is to set up the loom by winding the warp yarn onto the back beam of the loom. The warp threads are then threaded through the reed and heddles, which control the movement of the threads during weaving.

Step 4: Sleying
The warp threads are then grouped into sections called ends and sleyed, or spaced evenly, through the reed to ensure an even distribution of yarn.

Step 5: Beaming
The warp threads are then wound onto the front beam of the loom, creating the tension necessary for weaving.

Step 6: Threading
The weft yarn is then threaded through the shuttle, which carries the yarn across the loom from one side to the other.

Step 7: Weaving
The next step in the woven fabric manufacturing process is weaving, which involves interlacing the warp and weft yarns to form the fabric. This is done using a loom, where the warp yarns are stretched vertically on the loom and the weft yarns are passed over and under the warp to create a weave pattern. The weft yarns are threaded through the eye of a shuttle, which carries the yarn from one side of the loom to the other. The shuttle moves back and forth, interlacing the warp and weft yarns to form the fabric.

Step 8: Finishing the Fabric
Once the weaving is complete; the fabric is removed from the loom and undergoes various finishing processes, such as washing, dyeing, sanforizing, heat setting and pressing. This ensures that the fabric has the desired texture, appearance, and properties.

Step 9: Quality Control
Finally, the woven fabric undergoes a quality control check. It is a crucial step to ensure that the final product meets the desired specifications and customer expectations. If it passes, it is then packaged and shipped to the customer.

The woven fabric procedure is a complex and intricate process, involving many steps and skilled workers. From spinning the yarn to weaving the fabric and finishing it, each step is critical to the final product’s quality and performance.


  1. Handbook on Fabric Manufacturing: Grey Fabrics: Preparation, Weaving to Marketing by B. Purushothama
  2. Textile Engineering – An Introduction Edited by Yasir Nawab
  3. Handbook of Weaving by Sabit Adanur

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